When talking about Banking, people generally group Banks, Credit Unions, and Savings & Loan companies all in one group. They do provide similar services, but they each have specific differences that might make one a better fit for your financial needs than another.
What They Have In Common
All three of these institutions can do all the things you would normally associate with a “bank” – opening checking and savings accounts, making commercial loans, and issuing residential mortgages.
Savings and Checking Accounts
When you deposit cash at a bank, credit union, or savings and loan, you will put it into a checking (also called “Current”) account or a savings account.
Savings accounts are usually the first type of bank account you might open as a child. This is an account where you can make deposits of cash, and earn interest. How much interest you earn can vary a lot based on how much you have saved, how often you withdraw, the overall market interest rates, and even just by institution.
Savings accounts pay interest because banks use the money you have deposited to make loans to others, including people and businesses. Because the banks are “borrowing” your money, you receive interest in return. The larger your balance, the higher the interest rate you will be offered. Most savings accounts come with a limited number of withdrawals you can make each month. If you tend to withdraw money from a savings account frequently, the bank has a harder time maintaining that cash balance necessary to make loans to others, so you could be charged a penalty for making more withdrawals. If you need more frequent access to your money, a checking account is better for you. Credit Unions generally specialize in savings accounts.
Checking accounts are where you store your “day to day” money, meaning you will have a lot of frequent deposits and withdraws. Your checking account is the account that gets drawn down when you write checks, use a debit card, and usually where you pull money from when you use an ATM.
If you are accessing your account frequently for deposits and withdrawals, then you want to use a checking account. Consider a checking account where you store your “day-to-day” money. When you write a check, use your debit card, or withdraw money from the ATM, your checking account is usually the account that the money is drawn from.
A “Commercial Loan” is a loan made to a business, usually to “start up” or to expand their operations. Banks, Savings and Loans, and Credit Unions differ a lot on how much of their business comes from commercial loans, but for small businesses looking to secure start-up loans, each institution might be a good choice.
A residential mortgage is a loan acquired from a financial institution in order to purchase a home. A residential mortgage is necessary for most new homeowners because of the dollar amount required to purchase the home (usually over $100,000 and sometimes over $1 million). Since the mortgage amount is large, the borrower(s) make payments over a long period of time, usually 25-30 years. Savings and Loan institutions generally specialize in offering residential mortgages.
What is the difference between Banks, Credit Unions, and Savings and Loans?
Despite offering some similar services, there can be huge differences between these three types of financial institutions.
Banks are for-profit corporations with a charter issued at the local, state, or national level. They issue stock which is owned by investors, and those investors elect a board of directors who oversee the bank’s operations. Banks generally specialize in commercial loans – making loans to businesses to help them get started or expand.
Local banks are becoming less common, while national banks are becoming a lot more common. Over the last two decades, many local banks have been bought or merged with State banks, who in turn were bought or merged with National Banks. This has some advantages – by using a national bank, you will have access to a bank branch, ATMs, and in-person account services in a lot more locations than smaller institutions. Larger banks generally offer more account management services and account types than other institutions. For example, a national bank might offer some types of checking accounts that offer points and rewards for certain types of purchases (like gas and groceries).
Because they are much larger, banks also generally have better online banking services, with more account management services. This includes things like transferring money between your checking and savings accounts, viewing the checks you have previously written, checking balances using mobile apps, opening and closing credit cards, and managing automatic payments and deposits. Banks will also generally offer more choices for residential loans as well.
There are some significant drawbacks as well. Banks generally have higher fees than other institutions for its services, with lower interest rates for savings (although this is not always the case). It is fairly rare to find truly “free” checking accounts at banks. The large amount of choice you have for your savings and checking accounts can be a drawback as well – if your life circumstances change from what they were when you first opened your account, you might end up with more fees and less benefits than with a different account type, but very few people consider changing very often.
Credit Unions are the financial opposite of banks – they are non-profit, almost exclusively local, and are owned by the people who make deposits. Every member who makes a deposit at a credit union is a part-owner, and can vote on issues relating to the institution. They can also get elected to be the managers of the credit union.
Credit unions specialize in savings accounts and making short-term loans. Since they are non-profit, all the profits made by these loans are given back to the credit union’s depositors as dividends.Many depositors also prefer credit unions because of the more personalized service they receive. This is because credit unions are almost exclusively local, relying on the client’s deposits to stay in business, so they often have a reputation for providing excellent customer service. Since they are smaller with lower management costs, credit unions will often offer better savings account rates than banks and checking accounts with free services.
Savings and Loans
Savings and Loan institutions focus strongly on residential mortgages. In fact, by law they need to invest 65% of their assets in residential mortgages, and only up to 20% in commercial loans. They can also be local or national (like a bank).
A Savings and Loan can be organized like a bank (owned by investor shareholders) or like a credit union (owned by the depositors), but it is always a for-profit institution. Specializing in residential mortgages means that you might find the most flexibility for your mortgage at a Savings and Loan, and their smaller focus means that you will often see better terms for mortgages here than elsewhere (but not always!).
Savings and Loans do suffer from some of the same problems as credit unions. Their emphasis on slow-maturing mortgages means they are often lagging behind banks with account management and online services.